“Some of these stories are closer to my own life than others are, but not one of them is as close as people seem to think.” Alice Murno, from the intro to Moons of Jupiter

"Talent hits a target no one else can hit; genius hits a target no one else can see." Arthur Schopenhauer

“Why does everything you know, and everything you’ve learned, confirm you in what you believed before? Whereas in my case, what I grew up with, and what I thought I believed, is chipped away a little and a little, a fragment then a piece and then a piece more. With every month that passes, the corners are knocked off the certainties of this world: and the next world too. Show me where it says, in the Bible, ‘Purgatory.’ Show me where it says ‘relics, monks, nuns.’ Show me where it says ‘Pope.’” –Thomas Cromwell imagines asking Thomas More—Wolf Hall by Hilary Mantel

My favorite posts to get started: The Self-Righteousness Instinct, Sabbath Says, Encounters, Inc., and What Makes "Wolf Hall" so Great?.

Friday, December 9, 2011

Why I Am Not a Feminist—and You Shouldn’t Be Either part 1: Earnings

From a Georgetown University study called "Education, Occupation, and Lifetime Earnings"
           In order to establish beyond all doubt the continuing criticality of the battle for women’s equality, feminists rely heavily on data demonstrating an earnings discrepancy between genders. Women make less money in America, and therefore women are not yet equal. If women aren’t making as much as men who work in the same industry, if women aren’t making as much as men with the same education level, isn’t that an injustice? So how can I claim something is wrong with feminism, a movement seeking equal rights and equal treatment and equal pay for half the population of the country?

            There’s a point at which dwelling on the crimes committed against a group of people becomes a subtle form of bigotry toward other groups. Jews like to rehearse their long history of persecution for a reason. Focusing on anti-Semitism can bolster solidarity among Jews—if for no other reason than that it fosters suspicion of gentiles. This is not to minimize the true horrors and hatreds faced by God’s chosen people, but rather to point out that no matter how horrible their past is it doesn’t justify atrocities against other groups of people.

            I’m not writing merely to bemoan male-bashing, and I'm not suggesting feminists are guilty of atrocities (though a case could be made that they are). I’m writing because the good cause of equal rights and equal pay shades with distressing frequency into sloppy thinking and unscientific, perfervid preaching. Feminism has become a free-floating ideology, a cause inspiring blind frenzies and impassioned pronouncements about mysterious evils unlikely to exist in the world of living, breathing humans. And, yes, it is unfair to men, mean to boys, and counterproductive to women.

            I am an advocate of universal human rights, and many of my positions overlap with those of feminists. A pregnant woman has the right to choose whether or not to carry her baby to term. Any type of legal or educational enforcement of gender roles is a violation of the right of individuals to choose their own lifestyles, educational trajectories, careers, and the nature of their relationships. But this freedom in regard to gender roles also means that girls and boys, women and men, have just as much of a right to choose to be traditional or stereotypical in any of these domains. Any law or educational policy that goes after any aspect of gender freely chosen or naturally occurring is just as much of an injustice as one that forces individuals to take on roles that don’t fit them.
From a 2011 Gallup Report
          If it were true that the figures showing earnings discrepancies in fact represented compelling evidence of hiring or promoting biases favoring men, I would support the cause of reform—not in the name of women’s rights, but in the name of human rights, in the name of fairness. As stark an image as they paint, however, the results of the studies these figures come from are no more proof of bias than a study showing boys win more often in school sports would be proof of cheating. Just as you would have to address the question of how many girls are even playing sports, you have to ask how many women are applying for top-paying positions. Fortunately, several studies have looked at the application and hiring process directly—at least in academic fields.
From a CDC 2011 Report
            Before discussing those results, though, I’d like to point out (only somewhat flippantly) that earnings aren’t the only area in which reliable gender differences occur. Men have more heart attacks than women. And men tend to die at an earlier age than women, heart disease being the single most common cause of death. One of the main concerns of feminists is the so-called objectification of women and, more specifically, the theory that media portrayals of underweight actresses and models instill in young girls the conviction that they must be dangerously skinny to be attractive. Might it also be the case that media portrayals of extremely wealthy men instill in boys the notion that in order to be attractive they must make extremely large incomes, incomes they go to dangerous lengths to secure, say, by working long hours, spending little time with family and friends, ignoring their health, stressing themselves out, and working themselves into early graves.

            A 2010 study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences by Daniel Kahneman and Angus Deaton begins its discussion of results thus:

            More money does not necessarily buy more happiness, but 
            less money is associated with emotional pain. Perhaps 
            $75,000 is a threshold beyond which further increases in 
            income no longer improve individuals’ ability to do what 
            matters most to their emotional well-being, such as spending 
            time with people they like, avoiding pain and disease, and 
            enjoying leisure. According to the ACS, mean (median) US 
            household income was $71,500 ($52,000) in 2008, and about 
            a third of households were above the $75,000 threshold. It 
            also is likely that when income rises beyond this value, the 
            increased ability to purchase positive experiences is 
            balanced, on average, by some negative effects. recent 
            psychological study using priming methods provided 
            suggestive evidence of a possible association between high 
            income and a reduced ability to savor small pleasures. (4)

Perhaps a monomaniacal lusting after money is a pathology, one that men suffer from in much greater numbers than women. But my point isn’t that I think we should try to do something to protect these men from harm; it’s rather that income is not necessarily an absolute good. So why should it be a benchmark for women’s rights that they make dollar for dollar what men make? We have to at least consider the possibility that women have it as good or better than men already today.

            Still, if a woman wants to go toe-to-toe with her male counterparts to see who can earn more, there should be no institutional barriers hampering her ability to compete. Before we look at those earnings charts and imagine sinister cabals of Scotch-swigging conspirators, however, we must determine whether or not the numbers result from choices freely made by women. “Gender Differences at Critical Transitions in the Careers of Science, Math, and Engineering Faculty” is the 2010 report of a task force established to investigate this very question. The main finding:

For the most part, male and female faculty in science, engineering, and mathematics have enjoyed comparable opportunities within the university, and gender does not appear to have been a factor in a number of important career transitions and outcomes. (153)

How does the study account for the underrepresentation of women in these fields? “Women accounted for about 17 percent of applications for both tenure-track and tenured positions in the departments surveyed” (154). So the plain fact is that women apply for these positions less frequently. Could it be because they despair of their chances for getting an interview? It turns out that “The percentage of women who were interviewed for tenure-track or tenured positions was higher than the percentage of women who applied” (157), which does sound a bit like discrimination—against men. And it gets better (or worse): “For all disciplines the percentage of tenure-track women who received the first job offer was greater than the percentage in the interview pool” (157). Fewer women applying to positions in these fields, not discriminatory hiring or promoting, explains their underrepresentation.

            Reviewing this and several other research programs, Stephen Ceci and Wendy Williams, in a report likewise published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences titled "Understanding current causes of women's underrepresentation in science", explain that 

            Despite frequent assertions that women’s current       
            underrepresentation in math-intensive fields is caused by sex 
            discrimination by grant agencies, journal reviewers, and 
            search committees, the evidence shows women fare as well 
            as men in hiring, funding, and publishing (given comparable 
            resources). That women tend to occupy positions offering 
            fewer resources is not due to women being bypassed in 
            interviewing and hiring or being denied grants and journal 
            publications because of their sex. It is due primarily to 
            factors surrounding family formation and childrearing, 
            gendered expectations, lifestyle choices, and career 
            preferences—some originating before or during adolescence 
            —and secondarily to sex differences at the extreme right tail 
            of mathematics performance on tests used as gateways to 
            graduate school admission. As noted, women in 
            math-intensive fields are interviewed and hired slightly in 
            excess of their representation among PhDs applying for 
            tenure-track positions. The primary factors in women’s 
            underrepresentation are preferences and choices—both freely 
            made and constrained: “Women choose at a young age not to 
            pursue math-intensive careers, with few adolescent girls 
            expressing desires to be engineers or physicists, preferring 
            instead to be medical doctors, veterinarians, biologists, 
            psychologists, and lawyers. Females make this choice 
            despite earning higher math and science grades than males 
            throughout schooling”. (5)

These "math-intensive" fields (Wallstreet?) are central to our economy and accordingly tend to mean higher pay for those who chose them. Since the study that compared incomes by gender and education level failed to account for what field the education or the career was in, the differences in fields chosen probably explains the difference in pay. The PNAS study authors cite a Government Accountability Office report whose findings accorded well with this explanation. Ceci and Williams write that

            the GAO report mentions studies of pay differentials,  
            demonstrating that nearly all current salary differences 
            can be accounted for by factors other than 
            discrimination, such as women being disproportionately 
            employed at teaching-intensive institutions paying less 
            and providing less time for research. (4)

Conservatives are fond of the principle that equality of opportunity doesn’t mean equality of outcome. Though they are demonstrably wrong when it comes to economic inequality in general (since inequality and mobility are negatively correlated), the principle is completely sound. I have no doubt that some men are barring the doors of employment to some women in America today. There are probably places where the reverse is true as well. But feminism is a body of facile assumptions that leads to ready conclusions of questionable validity. The assumption of discrimination when faced with earnings discrepancies is just one example.

Feminism is the political and social effort to attain equality between the sexes. While this sounds perfectly innocuous, even admirable, it frames relations between women and men as fundamentally antagonistic; it’s us versus them. Even a whiff of tribalism tends to make otherwise admirable efforts take tragic turns. How many relationships have been undermined by the idea that difference means inequality means oppression, by the notion that within every man lurks the impulse to dehumanize and dominate women.

In future posts, I’m going to look at the faulty assumptions inspired by feminism in the realms of sex and attraction—i.e. the bizarre notion of objectification—and in the upbringing of children, where so much pointless hand-wringing takes place over whether gender stereotypes are being subtly imposed. For now, I’m going to close with some questions from a graduate level textbook, Theory into Practice: An Introduction to Literary Criticism by Ann Dobie. They’re from a section devoted to helping burgeoning scholars learn to write feminist essays about literature. The idea is to pose these questions to yourself as you’re reading. See if you can spot the assumptions. See if you think they’re valid or fair.

-What stereotypes of women do you find? Are they oversimplified, demeaning, untrue? For example, are all blondes understood to be dumb?
-Examine the roles women play in a work. Are they minor, supportive, powerless, obsequious? Or are they independent and influential?
-How do the male characters talk about the female characters?
-How do the male characters treat the female characters?
-How do the female characters act toward the male characters?
-Who are the socially and politically powerful characters?
-What attitudes toward women are suggested by the answers to these questions?
-Do the answers to these questions indicate that the work lends itself more naturally to a study of differences between the male and female characters, a study of power imbalances between the sexes, or a study of unique female experience? (121-2)

In case you missed it, let me quote from the first page of the chapter: "The premise that unites those who call themselves feminist critics is the assumption that Western culture is fundamentally patriarchal, creating an imbalance of power which marginalizes women and their work" (104). While I acknowledge the assumption was historically justified, I have a feeling people will keep making it long after its promise of a better tomorrow is exhausted.
Read part 2: The Objectionable Concept of Objectification
and part 3: Engendering Gender Madness
Read my response to commenters.


Dennis said...

This post emerged out of a facebook debate. Thanks to Tony Gill and Deakin Chips for your futile attempts to set me straight, and continuing to associate with me as I persist in my folly.

Leigh said...

I remember that textbook from Lin's class, and how I marveled at the leading the questions; the assumption is that the imbalance is always there, it merely needs to be identified. Many of the questions you raise, and suppositions you challenge, are questions that I have asked myself, and suppositions that I felt needed some deeper examination.
This is where feminist rhetoric loses it for me. While I am more than willing to continue as an "advocate of universal human rights", as you so eloquently put it, I will not be a willing participate in the systymatic dismantling and oppression of males. The fight against discrimination, or injustice of any kind, is never, in my opinion, best served by the "oppressed... strive[ing] to imitate the oppressor" (Paulo Freire), whether that oppressor is imagined or otherwise.
I look forward to reading what you have to say, and thank you in advance for doing the research for me. ;-) Be brave!!

Dennis said...

Brave? Ha ha. That makes it sound like they're going to fire me or something... Wait. They're not going to fire me are they?

Anonymous said...

@Dennis- link to that facebook debate? i have been pndering this topic for a long time-- and scratching my head on the filter bubble that is feminism

Anonymous said...

@Dennis- interesting article- would you post that link to the Facebook debate you mention?

Dennis said...

Hey Tim,
Try as I might, I can't figure out a way to link to those comment threads. It didn't occur to me to try to corral the responses onto the blog instead of the link on facebook.
I'm afraid I'd have to find some way to get all the debate participants' permission to make their comments public--and,again, I simply don't know how to do that.
Do you?